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Solar Cell Scribing System : SLY
 
What is solar cell?
A photovoltaic cell (commonly called a solar cell) is a nonmechanical device usually made from silicon alloys. It converts sunlight into electricity. The PV cell was discovered in 1954 by Bell Telephone researchers. Late 1950s, PV cells were used to power U.S. space satellites.

Individual cells can vary in size from about 1 cm (1/2 inch) to about 10 cm (4 inches). Most photovoltaic cells are about ten percent efficient in covering sunlight to electricity with further research being conducted to raise this efficiency to fifteen-twenty percent.

Photovoltaic conversion is useful for several reasons. Conversion from sunlight to electricity is direct, so that bulky mechanical generator systems are unnecessary. The modular characteristic of photovoltaic energy allows arrays to be installed quickly and in any size required or allowed.

Presently BCSC (Buried Contact Solar Cells) and Polycrystalline CdTe-baser Photovoltaic are the latest technology in the solar cells and having efficiency is around 15-20 % approx. and we can get stable power output and long life.
 
How does a solar cell work?
Sunlight is composed of photons, or particles of solar energy. These photons contain various amounts of energy corresponding to the different wavelengths of the solar spectrum. When photons strike a photovoltaic cell, they may be reflected, pass right through, or be absorbed. Only the absorbed photons provide energy to generate electricity. When enough sunlight (energy) is absorbed by the material (semiconductor), electrons are dislodged from the material's atoms. Special treatment of the material surface during manufacturing makes the front surface of the cell more receptive to free electrons, so the electrons naturally migrate to the surface. When the electrons leave their position, holes are formed. When many electrons, each carrying a negative charge, travel toward the front surface of the cell, the resulting imbalance of charge between the cell's front and back surface creates a voltage potential like the negative and positive terminals of a battery. When the two surfaces are connected through an external load, electricity flows.
 
What is scribing and why scribing is necessary?
Scribing means, cutting of a grid pattern of grooves in a semiconductor material generally for the purpose of marking interconnections or to cut the solar cells into two parts.

Laser scribing is done for the fabrication of monolithic cell interconnections. Scribing, either with a mechanical stylus or a laser is used for fabricating series interconnections allowing a large, thin-film photovoltaic panels to be made with, for example, 100 cells monolithically interconnected. The series interconnection allows the same electrical power to be produces from the panel with a voltage 100 times that of an individual cell and the current equal to that of one cell. For CdTe thin films, the individual cell voltage is about 0.8V
 
Comparison between Conventional Diamond Cutter system for solar cells & Laser Solar Cell scribing system: SLT-SS-2000 offered by SAHAJANAND LASER TECHNOLOGY.
 
Technical:
Features Conventional System Laser System Advantages of Laser
Tool Diamond cutter Laser cutter Non contact type tooling. Most suitable for the brittle materials which is used in Solar cell.
Positioning Speed   60 mm / sec More Positioning speed.
Cutting Speed 8.00 mm /sec 30 mm / sec Faster scribing leads to comparatively high productivity.
Kerf width of the tool 45 microns 1 8 microns less wastage : Because a cell costs around $ 4.1: more material saving, more economical.
Tooling Cost One Diamond Cutter approx. can cut 15,000 cell Laser : No replacement of tool Cutter cost can be saved.
Depth of cut   0.6 mm Precise depth of cut can be achieved.
Accuracy   1 micron precise accuracy More accuracy can be achieved.
Cost     Very Cost Effective
The laser ' s precision means cell divisions can be very thin, allowing more glass surface to be devoted to power production.

In addition to the increased processing efficiency of laser scribing and cleaving of solar cells compared to conventional diamond cutting, laser scribing also significantly diminishes the generation of shunts, which degrade the operation voltage of the cell.
 
Laser Head
Laser Lamp Pumped Nd:YAG Laser
Wavelength 1.064µm
Transverse Mode TEMoo
Beam Diameter 1.0 mm, nominal , M2 < 2.5
   
Q-Switched Performance at 3 kHz
Average Power 75 Watts
Pulse Width, nominal 110 ns
Peak Pulse Power 75 kW
Pulse Stability ( peak- peak ) 5%
   
CONTROLLER & CNC SYSTEM
Controller PC based
Axis Travel (X & Y) 200 mm x 200 mm ( 250mm X 250mm optional )
Resolution 1 Micron
Accuracy 2 Micron / 25 mm
Repeatability 2 microns / 25 mm Bi-directional
Straightness & Flatness 2 Micron / 25 mm
Of Travel  
Drive Servo Control Drives
Z Axis Manual
   
VISION SYSTEM
CCTV Camera In-built
 
MECHANICAL
Dimensions (L) 2000 mm x (W) 807 mm x (H) 1700 mm
   
ELECTRICAL
Power 380 ± 10% VAC, 3 Phase, 50/60 Hz.
   
SOFTWARE
Dedicated software for Solar Cell Cutting Application
 
 
Technical Specification
   
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     Solar Cell Scribo - SLY
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